Presentation for the 78th ASQDE Conference – The current situation of conclusion reporting in Germany & Greece, & the use of the “official” German Verbal Scale of conclusions.


Thomas Hecker – Niko Kalantzis: Presentation for the ASQDE 78th Conference (August 2020)

Conference presentation from  Thomas Hecker & Niko Kalantzis on the current status of conclusion systems for Handwriting Examination reports in Germany & Greece & brief introduction of the “Official” German Scale.

Description: In Berlin in 2005 Forensic Handwriting Experts from the government sector and part of the private sector agreed to use a common probability scale for verbal conclusions, based on the essay written by Norbert Köller, Kai Nissen, Michael Reiβ and Erwin Sadorf for the standardization of terminology used to express conclusions in expert opinions in handwriting, as appointed by the Forensic Science and Technology/Police Records Commission (of Germany), published in 2004. This verbal scale has been used since in Germany and abroad. In Greece the situation is very different as there is no unique method of reporting conclusions (either by law or by one of the two scientific societies of Greece). The main styles of conclusion reporting are either a. a personal scale of the examiner, b. the ASTM E1658 scale, c. the “ENFHEX” scale and finally d. the “official” German scale. After a short introduction of the systems used and the problems associated with their use, a brief walkthrough of the official German scale’s key points will take place.

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